ICSE Class 9 syllabus 2024
Syllabus

ICSE Class 9 syllabus 2024

by AlmondBooks Support on Feb 16, 2023

ICSE Class 9 Syllabus Subjects
English class 9 2024 Maths class 9 2024
History and Civics class 9 2024 Geography class 9 2024
Home Science class 9 2024 Physics class 9 2024
Biology class 9 2024 Chemistry class 9 2024
Economics class 9 2024 Commercial Studies class 9 2024
Environmental Applications class 9 2024 Physical Education class 9 2024

English Literature 2

Topics Contents
1. The Merchant of Venice - William Shakespeare
  • Act I
  • Act II
2. Treasure Trove
  • A Collection of ICSE short stories and poems
3. Poetry
  • The Heart of the Tree – Henry Cuyler Bunner
  • The Cold Within – James Pattrick Kinney
  • The Bangle Sellers – Sarojini Naidu
  • After Blenheim - Robert Southey
  • Television – Roald Dahl
4. Short Stories
  • Chief Seattle's Speech
  • Old Man at the Bridge – Ernest Miller Hemingway
  • A Horse and Two Goats – R.K. Narayan
  • Hearts and Hands – O.Henry
  • A Face in the Dark - Ruskin Bond

Mathematics

Topics Contents
1. Pure Arithmetic
  • Rational and Irrirational Numbers
2. Commercial Mathematics
  • Compound Interest
3. Algebra
  • Expansions
  • Factorisation
  • Simultaneous Linear Equations in two variables. (With numerical coefficients only)
  • Indices/Exponents
  • Logarithms
4. Geometry
  • Triangles
  • Rectilinear Figures
  • Circle
5. Statistics
  • Introduction
  • Collection of data
  • Presentation of Data
  • Graphical representation of data
  • Mean
  • Median of Ungrouped data
6. Mensuration
  • Area and perimeter of a triangle and a quadrilateral.
  • Area and circumference of circle
  • Surface area and volume of cube and cuboids
7. Trigonometry
  • Trigonometric Ratios
  • Trigonometric ratios of standard angles
  • Simple 2-D problems involving one right-angled triangle
  • Concept of trigonometric ratios of complementary angles and their direct application
8. Coordinate Geometry
  • Dependent and Independent Variables
  • Ordered Pairs, co-ordinates of points and plotting them in the cartesian plane
  • Solution of simultaneous Linear Equations graphically
  • Distance Formula

Geography

Topics Contents
1. Our World
  • Earth as a planet
  • Geographic grid
  • Rotation and Revolution
2. Structure of the Earth
  • Earth's Surface
  • Landforms of the earth
  • Rocks-difference between minerals and rocks, types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, their characteristics and formation; rock cycle.
  • Volcanoes
  • Earthquakes
  • Weathering and Denudation
3. Hydrosphere
  • Meaning of Hydrosphere
  • Tides-Formation and pattern
  • Ocean Currents
4. Atmosphere
  • Composition and structure of the atmosphere
  • Insolation
  • Atmospheric Pressure and winds
  • Humidity
5. Pollution
  • Types
  • sources
  • Effects
  • Preventive Measures
6. Natural Regions of the world
  • Location, area, climate, natural vegetation and human adaptation
  • Equatorial region, Tropical grasslands, Tropical Deserts, Tropical Monsoon, Mediterranean, Temperate grasslands, Taiga and Tundra.
7. Map Work
  • Major Natural regions of the world
  • The Oceans, Seas, Gulfs and Straits - all Major Oceans, Caribbean Sea, North Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, South China Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, Hudson Bay, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Guinea, Bering Strait, Strait of Gibraltar, Strait of Malacca
  • Rivers – Mississippi, Colorado, Amazon, Paraguay, Nile, Zaire, Niger, Zambezi, Orange, Rhine, Volga, Danube, Murray, Darling, Hwang Ho, Yangtse Kiang, Ob, Indus, Ganga, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Tigris, Euphrates.
  • Mountains – Rockies, Andes, Appalachian, Alps, Himalayas, Pyrenees, Scandinavian Highlands, Caucasus, Atlas, Drakensburg, Khinghan, Zagros, Urals, Great Dividing Range.
  • Plateaus – Canadian Shield, Tibetan Plateau, Brazilian Highlands, Patagonian Plateau, Iranian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau.

History and Civics

Section A: Civics
Topics Contents
1.Our Constitution
  • Definition of constitution
  • Date of enforcement and its significance
  • Features
2. Elections
  • Meaning
  • Composition of Election Commission
  • Direct and Indirect Election
  • General Election
  • Mid-term Election
  • By-Election
3. Local Self Government
  • Rural : Three-tier system of Panchayati Raj – Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti, Zila Parishad – their meaning and functions. 
  • Urban : Municipal Committees and Municipal Corporations – meaning and functions
Section B: History
Topics Contents
1. The Harrapan Civilisation
  • Sources: Great Bath, Citadel, seals, bearded man, dancing girl, dockyard, script.
  • Origin, extent, urban planning, trade, art & craft, and its decline.
2. The Vedic Period
  • Sources: Vedas and Epics (brief mention); Iron Artifacts and Pottery.
  • Brief comparative study of Early and Later Vedic society and economy.
3. Jainism and Buddhism
  • Sources: Angas, Tripitikas and Jatakas (brief mention).
  • Causes for their rise in the 6th century B.C.; Doctrines.
4. The Mauryan Empire
  • Sources: Arthashastra, Indika, Ashokan Edicts, Sanchi Stupa.
  • Political history and administration (Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka); Ashoka’s Dhamma.
5. The Sangam Age
  • Sources: Tirukkural and Megaliths.
  • A brief study of society and economy.
6. The age of the Guptas
  • Sources: Account of Fa-hien; Allahabad Pillar Inscription.
  • Political history and administration (Samudragupta and Chandragupta Vikramaditya); Contribution to the fields of Education (Nalanda University), Science (Aryabhatta) and Culture (works of Kalidasa, Deogarh temple).
7. Mediveal India
  • The Cholas
    • Sources: Inscriptions; Brihadishwara Temple. Political history and administration (Rajaraja I, Rajendra I).
  • The Delhi Sultanate
    • Sources: Inscriptions; Qutab Minar
    • Political history and administration (Qutbuddin Aibak, Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Bin Tughlaq).
  • The Mughal Empire
    • Sources: Ain-i-Akbari, Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid and Red Fort.
    • Political history and administration (Babur, Akbar and Aurangzeb).
  • Composite Culture
    • Sources: Bijak, Guru Granth Sahib, Ajmer Sharief, St. Francis Assisi Church (Kochi).
    • Significance of Bhakti Movements and Sufism (Mirabai, Sant Jnaneswar and Hazrat Nizamuddin). Influence of Christianity (St. Francis Xavier).
8. The Modern Age in Europe 
  • Renaissance
    • Definition, causes (capture of Constantinople, decline of Feudalism, new trade routes, spirit of enquiry and invention of the printing press) and impact on art, literature and science (Leonardo Da Vinci, William Shakespeare and Copernicus).
  • Reformation
    • Causes of reformation (dissatisfaction with the practices of the Catholic Church and new learning); Martin Luther’s contribution, Counter Reformation.
  • Industrial Revolution
    • Definition of the term. Comparative study of Socialism and Capitalism.

Physics

Topics Contents
1. Measurements and Experimentation
  • International System of Units, the required SI units with correct symbols are given at the end of this syllabus. Other commonly used system of units - fps and cgs.
  • Measurements using common instruments, Vernier callipers and micro-metre screw gauge for length, and simple pendulum for time. Measurement of length using, Vernier callipers and micro-metre screw gauge. Decreasing least-count leads to an increase in accuracy; least-count (LC) of Vernier callipers and screw gauge), zero error (basic idea), (no numerical problems on callipers and screw gauge), simple pendulum; time period, frequency, graph of length l versus T2 only; slope of the graph. Formula T=2.π.√1/g [no derivation]. Only simple numerical problems.
2. Motion in One Dimension
  • Scalar and vector quantities, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of distance-time and speed-time; equations of uniformly accelerated motion with derivations. Examples of Scalar and vector quantities only, rest and motion in one dimension; distance and displacement; speed and velocity; acceleration and retardation; distance-time and velocity-time graphs; meaning of slope of the graphs; [Nonuniform acceleration excluded]. Equations to be derived: v = u + at; S = ut + ½at2; S = ½(u+v)t; v2 = u2 + 2aS. [Equation for Sn th is not included]. Simple numerical problems.
3. Laws of Motion
  • Contact and non-contact forces; cgs & SI units. Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during collision) and non-contact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic). General properties of non-contact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their relation with Gravitational units
  • Newton’s First Law of Motion (qualitative discussion) introduction of the idea of inertia, mass and force. Newton's first law; statement and qualitative discussion; definitions of inertia and force from first law, examples of inertia as illustration of first law. (Inertial mass not included).
  • Newton’s Second Law of Motion (including F=ma); weight and mass. Detailed study of the second law. Linear momentum, p = mv; change in momentum ∆p = ∆(mv) = m∆v for mass remaining constant, rate of change of momentum; 
    ∆ p/∆ t = m∆v /∆t = ma or
    {p2-p1/t = mv-mu/t = m(v-u)/t= ma};
    Simple numerical problems combining F = ∆p /∆t = ma and equations of motion. Units of force - only cgs and SI
  • Newton’s Third Law of Motion (qualitative discussion only); simple examples. Statement with qualitative discussion; examples of action - reaction pairs, (FBA and FAB); action and reaction always act on different bodies
  • Gravitation - Universal Law of Gravitation. (Statement and equation) and its importance. Gravity, acceleration due to gravity, free fall. Weight and mass, Weight as force of gravity comparison of mass and weight; gravitational units of force, (Simple numerical problems), (problems on variation of gravity excluded)
4. Fluids
  • Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p=hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure. Thrust and Pressure and their units; pressure exerted by a liquid column p = hρg; simple daily life examples, (i) broadness of the base of a dam, (ii) Diver’s suit etc. some consequences of p = hρg; transmission of pressure in liquids; Pascal's law; examples; atmospheric pressure; common manifestation and consequences. Variations of pressure with altitude, (qualitative only); applications such as weather forecasting and altimeter. (Simple numerical problems)
  • Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid. Buoyancy, upthrust (FB); definition; different cases, FB>, = or < weight W of the body immersed; characteristic properties of upthrust; Archimedes’ principle; explanation of cases where bodies with density ρ >, = or < the density ρ' of the fluid in which it is immersed. Relative Density (RD) and Archimedes’ principle. Experimental determination of RD of a solid and liquid denser than water. Floatation: principle of floatation; relation between the density of a floating body, density of the liquid in which it is floating and the fraction of volume of the body immersed; (ρ1/ρ2 = V2/V1); apparent weight of floating object; application to ship, submarine, iceberg, balloons, etc. Simple numerical problems involving Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy and floatation.
5. Heat and Energy
  • Concepts of heat and temperature
    • Heat as energy, SI unit – joule, 1 cal = 4.186 J exactly.
  • Anomalous expansion of water;
    • graphs showing variation of volume and density of water with temperature in the 0 to 10 0 C range. Hope’s experiment and consequences of Anomalous expansion
  • Energy flow and its importance:
    • Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics- ‘Energy is neither created nor destroyed’ and ‘No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.
  • Energy sources
    • Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus non-renewable sources (elementary ideas with example)./li>
    • Renewable energy: biogas, solar energy, wind energy, energy from falling of water, run-of-the river schemes, energy from waste, tidal energy, etc. Issues of economic viability and ability to meet demands.
    • Non-renewable energy – coal, oil, natural gas. Inequitable use of energy in urban and rural areas. Use of hydro electrical powers for light and tube wells.
  • Global warming and Green House effect:
    • Meaning, causes and impact on the life on earth. Projections for the future; what needs to be done. Energy degradation – meaning and examples.
6. Light
  • Reflection of light; images formed by a pair of parallel and perpendicular plane mirrors; Laws of reflection; experimental verification; characteristics of images formed in a pair of mirrors, (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to each other; uses of plane mirrors.
  • Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image formed by these mirrors. Uses of concave and convex mirrors. (Only simple direct ray diagrams are required). Brief introduction to spherical mirrors - concave and convex mirrors, centre and radius of curvature, pole and principal axis, focus and focal length; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis of concave and convex mirrors; characteristics of images. f = R/2 (without proof); sign convention and direct numerical problems using the mirror formulae are included. (Derivation of formulae not required) Uses of spherical mirrors. Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required.
7. Sound
  • Nature of Sound waves. Requirement of a medium for sound waves to travel; propagation and speed in different media; comparison with speed of light. Sound propagation, terms – frequency (f), wavelength (λ), velocity (V), relation V = fλ. (Simple numerical problems) effect of different factors on the speed of sound; comparison of speed of sound with speed of light; consequences of the large difference in these speeds in air; thunder and lightning
  • Infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic frequencies and their applications. Elementary ideas and simple applications only. Difference between ultrasonic and supersonic.
8. Electricity and Magnetism
  • Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge); potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional)
    • Current Electricity: brief introduction of sources of direct current - cells, accumulators (construction, working and equations excluded); Electric current as the rate of flow of electric charge (direction of current - conventional and electronic), symbols used in circuit diagrams. Detection of current by Galvanometer or ammeter (functioning of the meters not to be introduced). Idea of electric circuit by using cell, key, resistance wire/resistance box/rheostat, qualitatively.; elementary idea about work done in transferring charge through a conductor wire; potential difference V = W/q (No derivation of formula) simple numerical problems.
    • Social initiatives: Improving efficiency of existing technologies and introducing new eco-friendly technologies. Creating awareness and building trends of sensitive use of resources and products, e.g. reduced use of electricity.
  • Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.
    • Magnetism: magnetism induced by bar magnets on magnetic materials; induction precedes attraction; lines of magnetic field and their properties; evidences of existence of earth’s magnetic field, magnetic compass. Uniform magnetic field of earth and nonuniform field of a bar magnet placed along magnetic north-south; neutral point; properties of magnetic field lines.
  • Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.
    • Self-explanatory

Chemistry

Topics Contents
1. The Language of Chemistry
  • Symbol of an element; valency; formulae of radicals and formulae of compounds. Balancing of simple chemical equations.
    • Symbol – definition; symbols of the elements used often.
    • Valency - definition; hydrogen combination and number of valence electrons of the metals and non-metals; mono, di, tri and tetra valent elements.
    • Radicals – definition; formulae and valencies.
    • Compounds – name and formulae.
    • Chemical equation – definition and examples of chemical equations with one reactant and two or three products, two reactants and one product, two reactants and two products and two reactants and three or four products; balancing of equations. (by hit and trial method).
  • Relative Atomic Masses (atomic weights) and Relative Molecular Masses (molecular weights): either - standard H atom or 1/12th of carbon 12 atom.
    • Definitions
    • Calculation of Relative Molecular Mass and percentage composition of a compound
2. Chemical changes and reactions
  • Type of chemical changes
    • Direct Combination
    • Decomposition
    • Displacement
    • Double Decomposition
    • (The above to be taught with suitable chemical equations as examples).
  • Energy changes in a chemical change.
    • Exothermic and endothermic reactions with examples – evolution/absorption of heat, light and electricity
3. Water
  • Water as as universal solvent
    • Solutions as 'mixtures' of solids in water; saturated solutions
    • Qualitative effect of temperature on solubility (e.g. solutions of calcium sulphate, potassium nitrate and sodium chloride in water)
  • Hydrated and anhydrous substances
    • Hydrated substances: Water of Crystallisation – meaning and examples.
    • Anhydrous substances: Meaning and examples only
    • Properties
      • Efflorescence
      • Deliquescence
      • Hygroscopy
      • Removal of hardness
        • By boiling
        • By addition of washing soda
      (Definition and examples of each of the above).
    Drying and Dehydrating agents: Meaning and examples only.
  • Soft water and Hard water
    • Meaning, (in terms of action of soap)
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of Soft water and Hard water
    • Types and causes of hardness
4. Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
  • Structure of an Atom, mass number and atomic number, Isotopes and Octet Rule.
    • Definition of an atom
    • Constituents of an atom - nucleus (protons, neutrons) with associated electrons; mass number, atomic number
    • Electron distribution in the orbits - 2n2 rule, Octet rule. Reason for chemical activity of an atom.
    • Definition and examples of isotopes (hydrogen, carbon, chlorine).
  • Electrovalent and covalent bonding, structures of various compounds – orbit structure
    • Electrovalent bond
      • Definition
      • Atomic orbit structure for the formation of Electrovalent compounds (e.g. NaCl, MgCl2, CaO);
    • Covalent Bond
      • Definition
      • Atomic orbit structure for the formation of Covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (examples: hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen chloride, water, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.)
5. The Periodic Table
  • Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s contributions; Modern Periodic Law, the Modern Periodic Table. (Groups and periods)
    • General idea of Dobereiner’s triads, Newland’s law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s periodic law
    • Discovery of Atomic Number and its use as a basis for Modern Periodic law
    • Modern Periodic Table (Groups 1 to 18 and periods 1 to 7).
    • Special reference to Alkali metals (Group 1), Alkaline Earth metals (Group 2) Halogens (Group 17) and Zero Group (Group 18)
6. Study of the First Element -Hydrogen
  • Position of the non-metal (Hydrogen) in the periodic table and general group characteristics with reference to valency electrons, burning, ion formation applied to the above-mentioned element.
    • Hydrogen from: water, dilute acids and alkalis
      • Hydrogen from water:
        • The action of cold water on sodium potassium and calcium.
        • The action of hot water on magnesium.
        • The action of steam on aluminium, zinc, and iron; (reversibility of reaction between iron and steam).
        • The action of steam on non-metal (carbon).
        • Students can be shown the action of sodium and calcium on water in the laboratory. They must be asked to make observations and write equations for the above reactions. Application of activity series for the above-mentioned reactions.
      • Displacement of hydrogen from dilute acids. The action of dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid on metals: Mg, Al, Zn and Fe .
      • (To understand reasons for not using other metals and dilute nitric acid.)
      • Displacement of hydrogen from alkalis. The action of Alkalis ((NaOH, KOH) on Al, Zn and Pb – unique nature of these elements.
  • The preparation and collection of hydrogen by a standard laboratory method other than electrolysis. In the laboratory preparation, the reason for using zinc, the impurities in the gas, their removal and the precautions in the collection of the gas must be mentioned.
  • Industrial manufacture of hydrogen by Bosch process.
    • Main reactions and conditions.
    • Separation of CO2 and CO from hydrogen
  • Oxidation and reduction reactions - Differences in terms of addition and removal of oxygen / hydrogen
7. Study of Gas Laws
  • The behaviour of gases under changes of temperature and pressure; explanation in terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms, molecules); Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law; absolute zero; gas equation; simple relevant calculations.
    • The behaviour of gases under changes of temperature and pressure; explanation in terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms, molecules)
    • Boyle’s Law: statement, mathematical form, simple calculations.
    • Charles’ Law: statement, mathematical form, simple calculations.
    • Absolute zero Kelvin scale of temperature.
    • Gas equation P1V1/T1= P2V2/T2; simple relevant calculations based on gas equation.
  • Relationship between Kelvin scale and Celsius Scale of temperature; Standard temperature and pressure. Conversion of temperature from Celsius Scale to Kelvin scale and vice versa. Standard temperature and pressure. (Simple calculations).
8. Atmospheric Pollution
  • Acid rain – composition, cause and its impact.
    • Sulphur in fossil fuels giving oxides of sulphur when burnt. High temperatures in furnaces and internal combustion engines produce oxides of nitrogen. (Equations to be included). Acid rain affects soil chemistry and water bodies.
  • Global Warming
    • Greenhouse gases – their sources and ways of reducing their presence in the atmosphere. (Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen)
  • Ozone depletion
    • Formation of ozone – relevant equations
    • Function in the atmosphere
    • Destruction of the ozone layer – chemicals responsible for this to be named but reactions not required.

Biology

Topic Contents
1. Basic Biology
  • The cell, a unit of life, protoplasm, basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; differences between an animal and a plant cell.
    • A basic understanding of the cell theory, structure of plant and animal cell with functions of various cell organelles. (Protoplasm, Cytoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosome, Golgi bodies, Plastids, Lysosomes, Centrosome and Vacuole).
    • Major differences between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
    • Differences between a plant cell and an animal cell should be mainly discussed with respect to cell wall, centrosome, vacuoles and plastids.
  • Tissues: Types of plant and animal tissues
    • A brief understanding of their location, basic structure and functions with examples.
    • A brief understanding of their role in different physiological processes in plants and animals.
2. Flowering Plants
  • Flower: Structure of a bisexual flower, functions of various parts.
    • A brief introduction to complete and incomplete flowers
    • Essential and non-essential whorls of a bisexual flower; their various parts and functions
    • EInflorescence and placentation (meaning only)
    • (Charts or actual specimens may be used to help enhance clarity of concepts.)
  • Pollination: self and cross-pollination.
    • Explanation, advantages and disadvantages of self and crosspollination.
    • Agents of pollination and the characteristic features of flowers pollinated by various agents such as insects, wind, and water.
    • A brief idea as to how nature favours cross pollination.
  • Fertilisation.
    • Events taking place between pollination and fertilisation leading to the formation of zygote in the embryo sac.
    • A brief explanation of the terms double fertilization and triple fusion.
    • Fruit and Seed - definition and significance.
3. Plant Physiology
  • Structure of dicot and monocot seeds, Germination of seeds, types, and conditions for seed germination.
    • Structure and germination of Bean seed and Maize grain.
    • Differences between monocot and dicot seeds.
    • Differences between hypogeal and epigeal germination.
    • Conditions for seed germination - To be explained and supported by experiments
  • Respiration in plants: outline of the process, gaseous exchange.
    • A brief outline of the process mentioning the terms Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and their significance.
    • A reference to be made to aerobic and anaerobic respiration with chemical equations in each case.
    • Experiments on gaseous exchange and on heat production
4. Diversity in living organisms
  • A brief outline of the five Kingdom classification.
    • Main characteristics of each kingdom with suitable examples:
      • Monera, Protista, Fungi.
      • Plantae - Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta.
    • Animalia - non-chordates from Porifera to Echinodermata and Chordates - all five Classes.
  • Economic importance of Bacteria.
    • Useful role of bacteria:
      • Medicine: antibiotics, serums and vaccines
      • Agriculture: nitrogen cycle (role of nitrogen fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria)
      • Industry -curing of tea, tanning of leather.
    • Harmful role of bacteria - spoilage of food, diseases in plants and animals, bio-weapons.
  • Economic importance of Fungi
    • A brief idea of the useful role of Fungi in breweries, bakeries, cheese processing, and mushroom cultivation. (Processes of manufacture are not required).
5. Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Nutrition
    • Classes of food; balanced diet. Malnutrition and deficiency diseases.
      • Functions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral salts (calcium, iodine, iron and sodium), vitamins and water in proper functioning of the body.
      • Sources of vitamins, their functions and deficiency diseases.
      • Meaning and importance of a ‘Balanced Diet’.
      • Role of cellulose in our diet
      • Causes, symptoms and prevention of Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.
    • The structure of a tooth, different types of teeth.
      • Structure of a tooth to be discussed with the help of a diagram.
      • Functions of different types of teeth.
      • Dental formula of an adult.
    • Digestive System: Organs, digestive glands and their functions (including enzymes and their functions in digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food).
      • Organs and glands of the digestive system and their functions with reference to digestion, absorption and assimilation.
      • brief idea of peristalsis.
  • Skeleton - Movement and Locomotion.
    • Functions of human skeleton
    • Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
    • Types of joints with reference to their location:
      • immovable joints
      • slightly movable joints
      • freely movable (hinge joint, ball and socket joint, gliding joint, pivot joint.)
  • Structure and functions of skin.
    • Various parts of the skin and their functions.
    • Special derivatives of the skin with reference to sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair, nails and mammary glands.
    • Heat regulation - vasodilation and vasoconstriction.
  • Respiratory System: Organs; mechanism of breathing; tissue respiration, heat production.
    • Structures of the respiratory system.
    • Differences between anaerobic respiration in plants and in man.
    • Role of diaphragm and intercostal muscles in breathing to provide a clear idea of the breathing process.
    • Brief idea of gaseous transport and tissue respiration.
    • Brief understanding of respiratory volumes.
    • Effect of altitude on breathing; asphyxiation and hypoxia.
6. Health and Hygiene
  • A brief introduction to maintaining good health.
    • General idea of personal hygiene, public hygiene and sanitation.
  • A brief introduction to communicable, non-communicable, endemic, epidemic, pandemic and sporadic diseases; modes of transmission.
    • Meaning of each of the above with examples.
    • Modes of transmission: air borne, water borne; vectors (housefly, mosquito, cockroach).
  • Bacterial, Viral, Protozoan, Helminthic diseases:
    • Bacterial: Cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis
    • Viral: AIDS, Chicken pox, Hepatitis.
    • Protozoan: Malaria, Amoebic Dysentery, Sleeping sickness.
    • Helminthic: Ascariasis, Taeniasis, Filiariasis.
    • (symptoms and measures to control the above diseases.) (Scientific names of causative agents not required).
  • Aids to Health: Active and passive immunity.
    • Meaning of Active and passive immunity
    • An understanding of the use and action of the following – vaccination, immunization, antitoxin, serum, antiseptics, disinfectants, antibiotics.
    • An idea of the local defense system and its merits, difference between antiseptics and disinfectants
  • Health Organisations: Red Cross, WHO.
    • Major activities of the Red Cross and WHO.
7. Waste generation and management
  • Sources of waste - domestic, industrial, agricultural, commercial and other establishments.
    • Domestic waste: paper, glass, plastic, rags, kitchen waste, etc.
    • Industrial: mining operations, cement factories, oil refineries, construction units
    • Agricultural: plant remains, animal waste, processing waste
    • Municipal sewage: Sewage, degradable and non-degradable waste from offices, etc.
    • e-waste: brief idea about e-waste.
  • Methods of safe disposal of waste.
    • Segregation, dumping, composting, drainage, treatment of effluents before discharge, incineration, use of scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators.
    • Segregation of domestic waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable by households: garden waste to be converted to compost; sewage treatment plants.

Economics

Topic Contents
1. Introduction to Economics
  • Definition of Economics according to Adams, Robbins, Keynes and Samuelson.
    • Self-explanatory
  • Micro & Macro Economics
    • Meaning, difference and examples only.
  • Types of activities.
    • Economic and non-economic activities: meaning and examples; difference between Economic and non-economic activities.
  • Sectors in an Economy.
    • Primary, secondary and tertiary sectors: meaning and examples along with; differences.
  • Basic Economic terms.
    • Meaning of the following economic terms: Wants, Goods, services, wealth, utility, production, consumption, sustainable consumption, factors of production, market, price, value, income, saving, wealth, welfare, economy.
  • Entities
    • Government sectors, firms, households, foreign sector: meaning only.
2. Types of Economics
  • On the basis of nature
    • Capitalist Economy, Socialist Economy, Mixed Economy – with reference to India (meaning and differences).
  • On the basis of Development.
    • Developed Economy and Developing Economy: meaning and differences
  • Economic growth and development.
    • Meaning and differences.
3. Problems of an Economy
  • Limited availability of Resources
    • Meaning and types of resources with examples; meaning and examples of limited resources; an understanding of the basic economic problem - Human wants are unlimited in relation to limited resources that have alternative uses; need for efficient use of resources (brief understanding with an example.)
  • Central problems of an economy
    • What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce? - A brief understanding with examples.
4. The Indian Economy: A Study
  • Primary Sector: Agriculture - contribution of agriculture; problems of Indian agriculture; government measures to increase agricultural production; Green revolution and its impact; food security.
    • Agriculture and allied activities: meaning; contribution of agriculture to employment, industry, trade and selfsufficiency in food production: a brief understanding of the above.
    • Problems of Indian Agriculture: a brief understanding of: limited use of technology, fragmentation of land holdings, dependence on monsoon, lack of rural credit facilities, inadequate storage & marketing facilities.
    • Government measures to improve agricultural production: Use of High Yielding variety seeds, use of fertiliser 130 and insecticides, Better irrigation facilities, Adoption of technology, Setting up of agricultural research centres and institutes, Provision & expansion of rural credit facilities. Provision of better storage and marketing facilities: a brief understanding of the above.
    • Green Revolution: meaning and its positive impacts
    • Meaning of Food Security; role of Food Corporation of India(FCI).
  • Secondary: Industry: meaning and types; adverse impacts of industrialisation and measures to overcome adverse impacts.
    • Meaning of Industry; a brief understanding of the interdependence of Agriculture and Industry.
    • Types of Industries; large scale and medium scale Industries. Meaning, features and examples only. Cottage & Small-Scale Industries. Meaning, features and examples; significance with reference to India
    • Adverse impacts of industrialisation: a brief understanding of the adverse impacts with reference to industrial pollution and deforestation; measures to overcome the adverse impacts: Afforestation, Waste management.
  • Tertiary Sector: Education and Healthcare, Transportation, Banking, Insurance, Communication, Storage and Warehousing.
  • Role of each of the above in the economic development of the country in brief with the help of examples.
5. Major Problems of the Indian Economy
  • Poverty
    • Meaning of poverty line - concept based on calorie intake; Relative and absolute poverty: meaning with examples; causes of poverty: any five causes of poverty to be discussed.
  • Unemployment
    • Meaning; Types: Seasonal, Structural, Technological: meaning and example of each. Causes of unemployment- any five to be discussed
  • Schemes and Programmes introduced by the government to remove poverty & unemployment.
    • Any two programmes to be studied with the objectives. For example, IRDP, JRY, PKVY, HRIDAY, MNREGA, etc.
6. Major Reforms and Emerging trends in the Indian Economy
  • LPG Model
    • Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation: meaning of each term and its positive impact on the Indian economy.
  • Smart city
    • Concept of Smart city; Case Study: take one suitable example of a smart city and discuss the development taken place in the form of infrastructure development, reduction of unemployment, poverty alleviation, HR development and industrial development.
  • ‘Digital India’ and ‘Skill India’
    • Case study of each of the above (not to be tested).

Commercial Studies

1. Commercial Activities
  • Commercial and Non-Commercial Activities
    • Meaning and difference with examples.
  • Types of Commercial activities.
    • Business, profession and employment – meaning and features.
  • Business Activities
    • Meaning and characteristics. Types of business activities: industry and commerce; classification of industry (primary, secondary and tertiary – meaning and examples of each).
  • Non-profit Organisations
    • Meaning and types (Society, trust, and nonprofit companies - Meaning and Examples only).
  • Commerce
    • Meaning of Commerce and its classification:
      • Trade (types of trade: wholesale and retail, domestic and foreign, e-commerce & e-trade - meaning and examples of each.
      • Aids to trade: transport, banking, advertising, insurance, warehousing, packaging – meaning and examples of each.
  • Commercial organizations - Classification on the basis of ownership.
    • Private Sector enterprise - Sole proprietorship, Partnership, oneperson company, Joint stock company, Limited liability partnership, Cooperative society (Meaning and features only)
    • Public sector enterprise – Departmental undertaking, public corporation, and government companies (Meaning and features only).
    • Joint Sector Enterprises – Meaning, features only.
2. Important departments of a Commercial Organization
  • production
  • Purchasing and Stores
  • Marketing and sales
  • Finance and Accounting
  • Human Resources
  • General Administration, Legal and Compliance
3. Communication in Commercial Organisations
  • Meaning and process; role of communication in a commercial organisation; different methods of communication: letter, e-mail, conference calling (audio & video), telephonic conversation, social media – meaning of each.
4. Introduction to Accounting and Bookkeeping
  • Meaning and objective
    • Meaning of accounting and bookkeeping; objective of accounting; accounting cycle; distinction between accounting and bookkeeping.
  • Basic accounting terminology
    • Capital, liability, asset, revenue, expense, purchase, sales, stocks, debtors, creditors, drawings, debit and credit, discount (Meaning only).
  • Basic accounting principles and concepts
    • Business entity, money measurement, going concern, accounting period, dual aspect and accounting equation, matching principle, principle of full disclosure – meaning and examples.
  • Journal
    • Meaning of Journal; and classification of accounts, rules of debit and credit.
    • Recording of transactions in journal. (Simple numerical based on the terminology mentioned in part (b) need to be covered. Compound journal entries including cash discount, bad debts and opening and closing entries need not be covered).
  • Ledger
    • Meaning, posting and balancing of ledger accounts. (Ledger posting on the basis of simple journal entries).
  • Trial Balance
    • Meaning, objectives and preparation of trial balance with the given set of ledger account balances. (Re-drafting of trial balance need not be covered.)
  • Cash Book
    • Meaning, types of cash books, preparation of single column cash book
5. Banking
  • Commercial Banks - Functions and Types of Accounts (Savings, Current, Recurring & Fixed Account – meaning and difference only).
6. Trade
  • Channels of distribution
    • Physical - C & F Agents, Wholesalers, Distributors & Retailers (meaning only).
  • E-commerce & E-trade
    • Merits and demerits of online trading.
7. Social Responsibility of Commercial Organisations towards the Environment
  • E-waste Management
  • Recycling
  • Afforestation
  • Eco Friendly Products
  • Legal Compliance of Environmental norms A brief understanding of the above.

Environmental Applications

To give a clear understanding of ecological concepts. The learning will be enhanced if live examples are used with as many outdoor classes as possible.
Topic Contents
1. Introduction
  • Broad introduction to the current environmental problems. Magnitude of these problems and appreciation of the complexity of issues involved. This is to be done through-
    • presenting facts and statistics.
    • inter-linking facts to generate a broad perspective.
    • understanding frameworks and systems that contribute to the problem under study.
    Our main environmental problems:
  • Understanding ecosystems- threats and conservation measures
    • Major causes of ecosystem destruction. The extent of forest cover left in India and the world today. For instance, India is left with about 4.6% protected forest cover. The rate of destruction. Efforts being undertaken to save the forests. Names of some organisations which are involved and understanding of conservation measures. Examples of successful cases
  • Resource depletion.
    • The consequences of major resources being depleted. Use of local and international examples. For example, petroleum products are likely to last only a few more decades.
  • Waste generation
    • Issues of waste generation and disposal. A few prominent examples like dumping of nuclear waste and other hazardous wastes in developing countries by developed countries. Basel Convention.
  • Economic disparities.
    • The extent of poverty in India and in the world. The nature of poverty in developed countries and developing countries - in rural and urban areas. Consequences and implications with reference to the lifestyles and aspirations of communities and society. Developmental paradigms and the politics of poverty
  • Land use.
    • Changing patterns of land use. Modern agriculture. Issues related to water.
2. Basic Ecology
  • Biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
    • Classification. Understanding role.
  • Food chains, food web and trophic levels.
    • To understand the use of these tools as a means of understanding ecosystems.
  • Ecological niche, habitat and microhabitat.
    • The criticality of the role of each species in an ecosystem. The difference between habitat and microhabitat.
  • Succession
    • How forests regenerate. Kinds of succession - primary and secondary.
  • Ecotypes
    • The influence of external factors like climate and soil (micro habitat) on organisms.
  • Flow of energy through an ecosystem.
    • Sun as the primary source of energy. Linear flow of energy versus cyclical flow of nutrients
  • Concept of Species
    • To understand the sovereignty of species. The importance of critical minimum size of species population.
  • Extinction of species
    • Effects of extinction
  • Introduced species.
    • The impact of introduced species on indigenous species and ecosystems - competition, habitat destruction, diseases etc., e.g. Acacia, Subabul, Lantana.
  • Endemic species
    • Inter-relationship with other organisms, their evolution, the extreme adaptability to local environments.
  • Keystone species.
    • Understanding that while all species have a niche, some species play a more critical role as they are keystone species, e.g. crocodile, sharks, fungi.
  • Kinds of ecosystems.
    • Study a range of ecosystems, the life that they support, their uniqueness, etc.
3. Conservation of Ecosystems
  • Conservation strategies:
    • Species approach including CITES.
    • Ecosystem approach including formation of National parks, sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves.
    • Wildlife management
    What is the extent of forest cover left in the world? What are the threats faced by forests? What are the different kinds of strategies that are being used to conserve forests? The above three are broad examples. Students should be made aware of the scope and limitation of the above approaches. Study an example of each kind.
  • Value of bio-diversity.
    • Study the value of bio-diversity from different viewpoints - ecological, economic, health, food and aesthetic
    Suggested Activities/Visits:
  • Visit to a national park /any protected area
  • Interaction with a group involved in conservation.
4. Dynamics of Development and Resource Use
  • Understanding Development
    • People as resources
      • To gain an understanding that most development issues arise due to not recognising people as valuable resources. Importance of generating employment.
    • Impact of scale and kind of technology on resources.
      • Understanding the model of modern development and the impact of industrialising and automating on the economy, people and resources. Shortterm and long-term accounting. Depletion of resources. Resource scarcity and economic consequences.
    • Urbanisation and its impacts
      • Causes and consequences of rapid, unplanned urbanisation - impact on infrastructure, services and provision of basic amenities.
    • Ecological footprint of a city
      • Study two sample cities to see the extent of ecological impact on surroundings and also the actual extent of resource supply to the city. Extent of waste generated in a city in a day. Ratio of biodegradable and non-biodegradable matter. The need to sort garbage. E.g. Chennai generates 3500 tons of garbage a day of which only 800 tons is non bio-degradable. Dumping of hazardous wastes particularly in developing countries. The Basel convention.
      • Recording of transactions in journal. (Simple numerical based on the terminology mentioned in part (b) need to be covered. Compound journal entries including cash discount, bad debts and opening and closing entries need not be covered).
    • Population (questioning Malthus, carrying capacity).
      • Self-explanatory
    • Poverty
      • Dynamics of urban and rural poverty, relationship to social structure - the dynamics of the decline of traditional opportunities and occupations.
      Suggested Activities/Visits:
    • Visit a rehabilitation site.
    • Vist NGO's working in the field of development
5. Understanding Land use
  • Agriculture
    • Traditional farming methods:
      • Study a few traditional methods of farming - region specific and crop specific. Management of commons. Farming as an activity of the whole community.
    • Traditional varieties and their adaptability to local environments.
      • Study characteristics of a few sample crops drawn from different climatic and soil conditions
    • The impact of green revolution practices.
      • Study the impact of green revolution practices on soil, water, local crop varieties, food production, economy, small farmers and distribution using Punjab as an example; contribution to food security.
    • Food scarcity in the midst of plenty.
      • To understand and analyse the distribution system.
      Suggested Activities/Visits:
    • Visit to a modern chemical farm and an organic farm.
    • Visit the wholesale market
    • Understand the flow of grain from farmer to the shop.
  • Towards a world without hunger
    • Introduction to new and old organic farming practices.
      • Do nothing farming – Fukuoka.
      • Bio-dynamic farming - Rudolph Steiner.
      • Permaculture – Mollison.
      • Integrated farming practices.
      • Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA).
    • Assessment of Biotechnology.
      • Is biotechnology the answer to the various environmental issues around food production or is it yet another technological disaster waiting to happen.
    • Global food security, food aid
      • How to achieve food security?
      • Is food aid the right answer?
      • Is sustainable agriculture and subsistence farming the answer to the problem of food security - or is it necessary to achieve a judicious balance of the above with monocropping for building a national buffer of food grains.

Physical Education

Section - A
Topic Contents
1. The Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Skeletal System: Bones
    • Identification of the following bones within the body: Neck – Cranium and Vertebrae, Shoulder – Scapula and Clavicle, Thorax – Ribs and Sternum, Fore limb – Humerus, radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals and Phalanges, Spine – Vertebrae, Hip – Pelvis, Hind limb – Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia, Tarsals, Metatarsals and Phalanges
  • Functions of the skeletal system.
    • Framework and Support, Movement, Protection of vital organs, Mineral storage, Blood cell production.
  • Classification of different types of joints:
    • Fixed joints / fibrous joints (skull), Slightly movable joints / cartilaginous joints (knee, elbow), Freely movable joints / Synovial joints (wrist, ankle, shoulder, neck). A brief explanation of the above types of joints with examples.
  • Types of joint movements in physical activities
    • Hinge joint - Flexion and Extension, Pivot join Rotation, Ball and Socket joint - Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction, Internal and External rotation, Saddle joint - Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction and Circumduction. Meaning and examples of each of the above
  • Benefits of exercise on the Skeletal System
    • Increases flexibility, makes bones stronger, strengthens joints, Good posture, Brings about a healthy lifestyle.
2. Muscular System
  • Types of Muscles
    • Voluntary/ skeletal, Involuntary/ Smooth/ Cardiac Muscles, Isometric and isotonic
    • Meaning of the above along with and difference.
  • Identification of Muscles
    • Identification of the following muscles within the body: Latissimus dorsi, Deltoid, Rotator cuffs, Pectorals, Biceps, Triceps, Abdominals, Hip flexors, Gluteals, Hamstring group, Quadriceps group, Gastrocnemius, Tibialis anterior
  • Benefits of excercise on the muscular system
    • Increases strength, endurance and power, better neuromuscular coordination, improves posture, enhances flexibility, decreases chances of injury.
3. Respiratory System
  • Pathway of Air into the body.
    • The mouth/nose, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Diaphragm, Lungs, Alveoli. A brief understanding of the above with the help of diagrams.
  • Mechanics of Breathing
    • External respiration - breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide, Diffusion of respiratory gasses in the alveoli, Internal respiration - cellular respiration
  • Oxygen Debt and lactic acid accumulation.
    • Meaning only.
  • Second Wind
    • Meaning only
  • Vital Capacity and Tidal Volume
    • Meaning and Difference
  • Benefits of excercise on the respiratory system
    • Increase in tidal volume, Respiratory muscles become stronger, increase in aerobic endurance, Faster rate of recovery to perform a physical activity.
4. Circulatory System
  • Structure of the heart
    • Meaning and functions of: Atria (left and right atria), Ventricles (left and right ventricles), Arteries, Veins, Capillaries.
  • Heart rate, Stroke Volume, Cardiac output.
    • Meaning and difference.
  • Mechanism of blood circulation
    • A brief understanding of the process of blood circulation.
  • Blood
    • Composition of Blood (Plasma, Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets).
      • Meaning and functions.
    • Blood groups - A, B, AB, O and Rh factor; Hemoglobin; Blood pressure
      • Brief understanding of the Blood groups; donors and recipients. Hemoglobin: function only; Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (meaning and difference).
  • Benefits of excercise on the Circulatory system
    • Increase in the size of heart, resting pulse increases, Reduction in heart related problems, Improvement of the cardio – vascular system, Increase in hemoglobin, Faster recovery to normal pulse after physical activity
5. Games and Sports
  • Games and sports and their psychological and social benefits.
  • Meaning and difference between Games and sports;
  • Psychological and social benefits: build confidence, bring about emotional control, lead to spirit of competitiveness, development of positive attitude, right attitude towards winning and losing, camaraderie, respecting authority, self-esteem, patience, resilience, cooperation, team work, sportsmanship, fair play, leadership, time management.
Section - B

Any two of the following games are to be studied:

Cricket, Football, Hockey, Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton.

The details for each game are given below:

1. Cricket
    • Knowledge of the game
    • Rules of the game
      • The Field of play: Diagram of the cricket field and pitch with measurements and specifications; The Ball (Shape, Material, Circumference, Weight); The Bat (Length, Width, Material); Stumps and bails (Height, Width); The Players (Number of players (playing eleven and substitutes); Substitutions; The Players’ Equipment; Compulsory equipment; Types of matches (One day, Five days, Four days and T20); Officials and their duties (2 field umpires, 1 third umpire, 1 match referee and 2 scorers); The Ball in and out of Play; Ways of a batsman getting out.
    • Fundamental skills and technique
      • Batting (On drive, off drive, Square cut and Leg glance); Fielding (Close catching, catching 'In the outfield', Long barrier and Throwing); Bowling (In swing, Out swing, Yorker and Full toss); wicketkeeping (Footwork, Catching the ball, and Diving).
    • Terminology
    Maiden over Hat Trick Extra
    Dead Rubber Seam Bowling Over
    Dead Rubber Seam Bowling Over
    No Ball Bouncer Sight Screen
    Bump Ball Danger Area Powerplay
    Overthrow Declaration Appeal
    Bodyline Bowling Dot Ball Substitute
    Dead Ball Ball Tampering Century
    Follow-on Golden Duck Nick
    Night Watchman Tail Ender Pull Shot
    Innings Defeat Cover Drive Innings
    Straight Drive Sweep shot Hook Shot
    Reverse Sweep Upper Cut Late Cut
    Leg glance Pull shot Flick Shot
    Beamer Off Cutter Leg Cutter
    Short Pitch Full length Delivery Reverse Swing
      • National and International governing bodies of Cricket
        • BCCI - Board of Control for Cricket in India
        • ICC - International Cricket Council.
      • National and International tournaments
        • National Tournament: Ranji Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Irani Trophy, Indian Premier League International Tournaments: ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC champions Trophy, ICC World T20, World Cricket League
      2. Football
        • Knowledge of the game
        • laws of the game
          • The Field of play: Diagram of the Field with Measurements and Specifications, Height and Width of Goalpost, Height of Corner flags
          • The Ball: Shape, Material, Circumference, weight, Air pressure
          • The Players: Number of players (playing eleven and substitutes), Number of substitutions allowed in a match, Substitution procedure
          • The Players’ Equipment, Compulsory Equipment
          • The Referee: Powers and Duties, Compulsory Equipment, Referee signals
          • Other match officials: Assistant Referees: Duties and Signals; Fourth official: Duties; Additional assistant referee: Duties; Reserve assistant referee: Duties
          • The Duration of the Match: Periods of play, Halftime interval, Allowance for time lost, Penalty kick, Abandoned match
          • The Start and Restart of Play: Kick-off and its Procedure (start, both halves, both halves of extra time and restarts play after a goal), Free kicks and its Procedure (Direct and Indirect), Penalty Kicks and its Procedure, Throw-in and its Procedure, Goal kicks and its Procedure, Corner Kicks and its Procedure
          • The Ball in and out of Play Determining the outcome of a match: Goal scored, Winning team, Kicks from the penalty mark
          • Offside: Offside position, Offside offence, No offence
          • Fouls and Misconduct: Direct free kick, Indirect free kick, Disciplinary action (Yellow card and Red card), Restart of play after fouls and misconduct
        • Fundamental Skills and Technique
          • Passing (Short pass and Long pass); Trapping (Step trap, inside trap, Thigh trap, Chest trap and Head trap); Shooting (Instep, Swerve shot, Chip and toe punt); Dribbling; Receiving; Heading; Tackle; Goalkeeping.
        • Terminology
      Advantage Zonal Marking Sliding Tackle
      Through Pass Quarter Circle Man-to-man marking
      Additional time Extra time Nutmeg
      One-on-one Step- over Technical Area
      Volley Half Volley Attacker
      Defender Chip Cross
      Overlap Lob Banana Kick
      Wall Pass Goal Line Technology (GLT)
      • National and International Governing Bodies
        • AIFF - All India Football Federation
        • FIFA - Federation Internationale de Football Assosciation
        • IFAB - International Football Assosciation Board
      • National and International Tournaments
        • National Tournament: Santosh Trophy, Subroto Cup, Federation Cup, Durand Cup, I – League International Tournament: FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Championship, AFC Cup
      3. Hockey
        • Knowledge of the game
        • Rules of the game
          • Field of play: Diagram of the Field with Measurements and Specifications
          • Composition of teams: Number of Players, Substitution rule for Field players and Goalkeepers
          • Captains: Identity and Responsibility Players’ clothing and equipment: Uniform and equipment of field players, Goalkeepers Match and result: Duration of the match and half time, Result of match
          • Start and re-start of the match: Procedure of Start (centre pass) and Re-start (Bully, Free hit, Second half) Ball outside the field: Procedure to re-start from different areas, side line, back line, after every goal Method of scoring
          • Conduct of play: Players, Goalkeepers and Players with Goalkeeping Privileges; Umpires (Responsibilities of Umpires).
          • Penalties and procedures for taking penalties: Awarding: Free Hit, Penalty Corner and Penalty Stroke; Procedures: Free hit, Penalty corner, Penalty stroke
          • Personal Penalties: Cautions (Verbal warning); Temporary suspension: Green Card - 2 minutes suspension, Yellow Card- 5 minutes suspension; Permanent suspension (Red Card)
        • Equipment Specifications
          • Field Equipment: Goal-post: (side board, back board and net); Flag post
          • Hockey Stick (Specification and Properties) Ball: Shape, Material, Circumference, Weight, Colour
        • Fundamental Skills and Technique
          • Passing (Push, Drive and Sweep)
          • Trap ( Upright stop & Flat stop)
          • Dribbling ( Straight dribble, Loose dribble, Indian dribble, Dribbling pullback, one hand dribble: right hand an reverse side)
          • Shooting, Goalkeeping
        • Terminology
      Forehand Playing Distance Tackle
      Back Stick Dangerous Play Field Goal
      Obstruction Raised Ball High Stick
      Hooking Reverse Stick Push
      Scoop Advantage Flick High Ball
      Shooting Circle Under Cutting Jab
      Foot Give and Go Carry the Wall
      Centre Pass Back Pass Reverse Hit
      Rebound Rusher Long Corner
      Through pass Stroke Cross
      16-yard hit
      • National and International Governing Bodies
        • FIH - Fédération Internationale de Hockey (French)
        • IHF - Indian Hockey Federation
      • National and International tournaments
        • National Tournaments: All India Gurmeet Memorial Hockey Tournament. Chandigarh, All India Chhatrapati Shivaji Hockey Tournament. Delhi, All India Indira Gold Cup Hockey Tournament, Jammu.
        • International Tournaments: Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Tournament, World Hockey Cup, Champions Trophy.
      4. Basketball
        • Knowledge of the game
        • Rules and Regulations of the game
          • Court: Diagram of the court with Dimensions and Specifications, Meaning of Court areas, lines, circle, semi-circle, position of the scorer's table and substitution chairs. Equipment needed to conduct the game
          • Teams: Definition, Rules, Players uniform Injured players
          • Captain and Coaches: Duties and powers Duration of Play Playing time, Tied score and Extra periods
          • Status of the ball: Ball Live, Ball Dead
          • Jump ball and Alternating possession: Jump ball: Definition, Procedure and Situations; Alternating possession: Definition and Procedure
          • How the ball is played: Definition and Rule
          • Control of Ball: Definition, Team Control: Continues and Ends
          • Goal: When made and its value, Definition, Rule of scoring
          • Throw-in, time-out, substitution: Definition, Rules and procedures
          • Game Lost by Forfeit, default, violation: Rules and Penalty
          • Player out of bounce and Ball Out of Bounds: Definition and Rule
          • Dribbling: Definition, a dribble starts, a dribble ends, rule for dribbling
          • Travelling: Definition, Pivot
          • Closely Guarded player: Definition and rule
          • 3 Seconds rule, 8 Seconds rule, 24 Seconds rule and procedure
          • Ball returned to backcourt: Definition, Rule and Penalty
          • Goaltending and Interference: Definition and rule; Meaning and penalty of Interference; Penalty for The Respective Violations.
          • Fouls – Definition; Personal Foul, Double Foul - Definition and Penalty; Technical Foul: Rules of conduct, Violence, Definition and Penalty; Unsportsmanlike Foul, Disqualifying foul - Definition and Penalty
          • Fighting - Definition, Rule and Penalty; Penalty for the respective Fouls; Five fouls by a player; Team fouls: Definition and Rule.
          • Contact: General principles: Cylinder principle, Principle of verticality, Legal guarding position, guarding a player who controls the ball, Guarding a player who does not control the ball, A player who is in the air, Screening (Legal and Illegal), Charging, Blocking, No charge semi-circle areas, Contacting an opponent with the hand(s) or arm(s), Holding, Pushing
          • Free Throws - Definition, Rule and Penalty
          • Duties and Powers of: Officials, Table officials and Commissioner; Referee; Scorer and Assistant Scorer; Timer; Short clock operator
        • Fundamental Skills and Technique
          • Dribbling (high dribble, change of pace, crossover, between the legs and behind the back)
          • Passing (chest pass, bounce pass, baseball pass, outlet pass and no-look pass)
          • Shooting (layup, jump shot, hook shot, free throw, bank shot and slam dunk)
          • Defence (man to man defence, zone defence and combination defence)
          • Offence (early offence, set offence, motion offence, zone offence and spread offence)
          • Rebounding (Offensive and Defensive) Pivot
        • Terminology
      Drive Fake Fast Break
      Blocking Charge Carry
      Screen Double Dribble Travel
      Triple Threat Ball Handler Dead Ball
      Front Court Loose Ball Held Ball
      Dunk Field Goal Alley-Oop
      Back Court Press Box out
      Double Foul Jump stop Timeout
      Air Ball Jump ball Game Clock
      Block Possession Arrow
      • National and International Governing Bodies of Basketball
        • BFI - Basketball federation of India
        • FIBA - Federation Internationale De Basketball
      • National and International tournaments
        • National Tournaments: Youth National Basketball Championships, Federation Cup Basketball Championship, UBA Pro Basketball League
        • International Tournaments: FIBA World, Championship, European Basketball Championship, FIBA Asia Championship
      5. Volleyball
        • Knowledge of the game
        • Rules of the game
          • Ball: Shape, Material, Weight, Circumference, Air Pressure
          • Composition of teams
          • Players equipment and forbidden objects
          • Team Leaders: Responsibility of Captain, Coach and Assistant coach
          • Playing Format: To score a point, To win a set, To win the match
          • Structure of Play: The Toss, Official warm-up session, Team starting line-up, Positions and Positional fault, Rotation and Rotation fault
          • States of Play: Ball in play, Ball out of play, Ball "IN", Ball "OUT"
          • Playing the ball: Team Hits, Characteristics of the hit, Faults in playing the ball, Ball at the net, Ball crossing the net, Ball touching the net, Ball in the net
          • Player at the net: Reaching beyond the net, Penetration under the net, Contact with the net, Player's faults at the net
          • Service: First service in a set, Service order, Authorization of the service, Execution of the service, Screening, Faults made during service, Serving faults and Positional faults
          • Attack hit: Characteristics, Restrictions, Faults
          • Block: Blocking, Block contact, Blocking within the opponent's space, Block and team hits, Blocking the service, Blocking faults
          • Interruptions, Delays and Intervals: Interruptions (meaning); Number of regular game interruptions; Sequence of regular game interruptions; Request for regular game interruptions;
          • Time-outs and Technical time-outs
          • Exceptional game interruptions: Injury/illness, External interference, Prolonged interruptions Substitution: Limitation, Exceptional, Expulsion/disqualification, Illegal, Procedure, Improper request
          • Game delays: Types of delays, Delay sanctions Intervals and change of court
          • Libero player: Designation of the Libero, Equipment, Actions involving the libero, Redesignation of a new libero
          • Participants' conduct: Sportsmanlike conduct, Fair play Misconduct and its sanctions: Minor misconduct, Misconduct leading to sanction, Sanction scale,
          • Cards used: Warning (Verbal and Yellow card); Penalty (Red card); Expulsion (Red plus Yellow card jointly); Disqualification (Red plus Yellow card separately)
          • Referees: Composition, Procedures, Location, Authority and Responsibilities of: First referee, Second referee, Scorer, Assistant scorer, Line judges.
        • Fundamentals Skills and Techniques
          • Service (Underhand, Topspin, Float, Jump serve and Jump Float)
          • Pass (Underarm pass and overhand pass)
          • Set (Overhead and Bump)
          • Attack/spike (Backcourt, Line and cross-court shot, Dip, Block-abuse, Off-speed hit, Quick hit, Slide and Double-quick hit)
          • Block (Single block, Double block and Triple block)
          • Dig
        • Terminology
      Back row attack Block assist Side out
      Blocking error Floater Two set
      Extension Roll free ball Joust
      Overlapping Back set Carry
      Closing the block Ball down Quick set
      Serving zone Defence zone Attack zone
      Foot Fault Net Violation Trap set
      Reading an opponent Cross-court attack
      • National and International Governing Bodies of Volleyball
        • VFI - Volleyball Federation of India
        • FIVB - Federation International De Volleyball
      • National and International tournaments
        • National Tournaments: Indian Volleyball League, Federation Cup, Poornima Trophy
        • International Tournaments: World Championship, World Cup Volleyball, Super Challenge Cup
      6. Badminton
        • Knowledge of the game
        • Rules of the game
          • Court: Diagram of the court with Measurements and Specifications, Court equipment (Posts and Net)
          • Shuttle: Dimensions and Specifications, Testing a shuttle for speed
          • Racket: Diagram of the racket with Measurements and Specifications
          • Toss: Procedure Scoring system Change of ends
          • Service: Singles (serving and receiving courts); Doubles: Serving and receiving courts, Order of play and position on court, Scoring and serving, Sequence of serving
          • Service court errors Lets Shuttle not in play Continuous play, Misconduct and Penalties Officials duties and appeals: Referee, Umpire, Service judge, Line judges
        • Fundamental Skills
          • Grip (Forehand grip and Backhand grip)
          • Footwork
          • Serve (High serve, Low serve, Flick serve)
          • Strokes (Overhead forehand stroke, Overhead backhand stroke, Underarm forehand stroke and Underarm backhand stroke)
          • Shots (Clearing/lobbing, Drop shots and Smash)
        • Terminology
      Short Serve Long Serve Wide Serve
      Service Order Love All
      Deuce Forecourt Mid-court
      Rear court Rally Set
      Rubber Lunge Clear Lob
      Half Smash Carry Baseline Smash
      Full smash Drive Push shot
      Tumbling net shot Net Kill Net Lift
      Hairpin net shot Alley Back Alley
      Follow Through Court Wood Shot
      Flick Bird Singles footwork base
      • National and International Governing Bodies of Badminton
        • BAI - Badminton Assosciation of India
        • BWF - Badminton World Federation
      • National and International tournaments
        • National Tournaments: Indian Open Badminton Championship, Senior National Badminton championship. International Tournaments: World Championship, Thomas Cup

      Home Science

      Topic Content
      1.Concept and Scope of Home Science
      • Introduction to the five streams in Home Science and how they integrate to form a meaningful whole.
        • Understanding that Home Science is a field of Applied Sciences, made up of five streams, i.e. Foods & Nutrition, Resource Management, Human Development, Textiles & Clothing and Communication & Extension.
      • Significance of the study of Home Science in different spheres of life.
        • An understanding that Home Science is a multi-disciplinary subject which helps in development of life-skills to deal with various situations in different spheres of life
      2.Food and Health
      • Food and its functions. Basic Cookery Terms. Health benefits of common food items
      • Definition of: food, nutrient, nutrition, balanced diet, health, malnutrition and optimum nutrition. Functions of food: physiological, psychological and social functions.
      • Meaning of basic cookery terms: Cutting, chopping, grating, kneading, beating, peeling, stringing julienne, mashing, cut and fold in, blending, dusting
      • Health benefits of common food items - to be done briefly:
        • Herbs: Mint, coriander, celery, basil, curry leaves, saffron, thyme, lemon grass;
        • Spices: cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, turmeric, fenugreek, cumin, fennel, carrom, asafoetida, ginger, garlic.
      • Nutrients and their functions. Deficeiency diseases.
      • Classification of nutrients according to their sources and functions:
        • Energy giving: Fats and carbohydrates;
        • Body building: Proteins and minerals;
        • Protective: Vitamins (A, D, E and K, Vitamin B -Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin and Vitamin C); Minerals (calcium, iron and iodine);
        • Regulatory: Water and roughage
      • Deficiency diseases associated with the above nutrients
      3. Growth and Development of Children from Birth to Five Years
      • Principles of development; milestones of development.
        • Meaning of the terms growth and development; difference between growth and development. Principles of development. Meaning of developmental milestones;
        • Milestones of development: meaning and characteristics of physical, motor, social, emotional, cognitive and language development.
      • Role and importance of play and play-school during early childhood.
        • The role of play with emphasis on holistic growth of the child. Considerations in choosing the kind of play (indoor/outdoor), play materials (indoor/ outdoor); types of play: constructive, fantasy, solitary, cooperative, creative: meaning only; types of play schools: Montessori, nursery, kindergarten - meaning only.
      • Diseases and their prevention
        • Common childhood diseases (0-5 years): Tuberculosis, mumps, measles, chickenpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, rubella, polio: names only and associated vaccines; Definition and importance of immunisation.
      4. The Home and its maintainence
      • Colour and its application in the home
        • Dimensions of colour – hue, value and intensity. Prang colour wheel (primary, secondary and tertiary colours); neutral, warm cool and metallic colours.
        • Colour schemes: related (monochromatic/one hue colour, analogous /adjacent), contrasting (complementary, double complementary, split complementary, triad and tetrad) colour schemes and their applications in the home – drawing/living room, bed room, dining room and kitchen.
      • Lighting in the house
        • Types of lighting (general and local or task, direct and indirect); sources of light: natural and artificial; choice of adequate lighting for different rooms
      • Sustainable utilisation of Fuel and Energy in the Home.
        • Sustainable use of fuel and energy with emphasis on the need and methods for the conservation of cooking gas, water and electricity in the house
      • Maintenance of Sanitation and Hygiene inside and outside the House
        • Role of sanitation and hygiene in the home and its environment;
        • Waste Management: Meaning of the term waste; basic concept of bio degradable and non-biodegradable wastes with examples.
        • Importance of segregation of waste: sorting of waste into biodegradable / nonbiodegradable, organic / non-organic, plastic, metal and e-waste at domestic and community level
        • Importance of the five Rs (reduce, refuse, reuse, recycle and reinvent) for environmental conservation
      5. Textile Science and Fabric Construction
      • Fibres: Properties and uses
        • Meaning of the term fibre; classification of fibres: natural, man-made and synthetic;
        • Natural fibres (cotton, silk and wool): brief idea of origin; man-made fibres (rayon: raw materials); synthetic fibres: nylon and polyester: raw materials;
        • Identification of fibres: microscopic appearance and burning tests. Properties of cotton, silk, wool, rayon, nylon, polyester and their uses.
      • Fabric structure: woven, non-woven and knitted.
        • Communication: meaning, functions and importance; elements of communication; interpersonal communication.
        • Meaning, functions and importance of communication; elements of communication (sender, message, medium, receiver, feedback: brief idea); meaning of interpersonal communication; acquiring interpersonal communication skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing.)
      6. Commiunication and Extension
      • Communication: meaning, functions and importance; elements of communication; interpersonal communication.
        • Meaning, functions and importance of communication; elements of communication (sender, message, medium, receiver, feedback: brief idea); meaning of interpersonal communication; acquiring interpersonal communication skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing).

      1 comment

      • Dilip Doke
        Mar 21, 2023 at 14:55

        There is no Hindi syllabus standard 9 2023 -24

        Reply

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